Quick Answer: What Are The Complications Of Severe Malaria?

What are the two main lines of attack on malaria?

The two main agents of human malaria, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, can induce severe anemia and provoke strong, complex immune reactions..

Who does malaria affect most?

Children aged under 5 years are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria; in 2019, they accounted for 67% (274 000) of all malaria deaths worldwide. The WHO African Region carries a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden.

Can malaria make you crazy?

Many such patients were diagnosed with malaria only some time later at the onset of fever, or when their symptoms progressed to coma. These reports described a common prodrome of hallucinations, anxiety, crying, violence, agitation, and a dreamy and confusional state [13].

What happens to your body when you have malaria?

Malaria may cause anemia and jaundice (yellow coloring of the skin and eyes) because of the loss of red blood cells. If not promptly treated, the infection can become severe and may cause kidney failure, seizures, mental confusion, coma, and death.

What is the best medicine for malaria?

When several different drugs are recommended for an area, the following table might help in the decision process.Atovaquone/Proguanil (Malarone)Chloroquine.Doxycycline.Mefloquine.Primaquine.Tafenoquine (ArakodaTM)

What causes complicated malaria?

Severe malaria is almost exclusively caused by Plasmodium falciparum.

Does malaria ever go away?

With proper treatment, symptoms of malaria usually go away quickly, with a cure within two weeks. Without proper treatment, malaria episodes (fever, chills, sweating) can return periodically over a period of years. After repeated exposure, patients will become partially immune and develop milder disease.

Is malaria a chronic or acute disease?

Chronic malaria is a long-term infection in semi-immune subjects. It is usually characterized by the absence of fever or any other acute symptoms, so that this condition has long been defined as asymptomatic carriage of malaria parasites [1].

Which part of body is damaged by malaria?

Malaria can cause your kidneys or liver to fail, or your spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening. Anemia. Malaria damages red blood cells, which can result in anemia.

Why do I feel weak after treating malaria?

Anti-malarial drugs also cause nausea and vomiting as adverse effect. These factors add up to cause loss of appetite and weakness. Malaria can also cause anaemia due to break down of red blood corpuscles by the causative parasite.

Does malaria cause dehydration?

The results suggest that dehydration is common in severe childhood malaria, that it may contribute to mild impairment in renal function, and that hyponatraemic children are less water depleted, showing appropriate rather than inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

Can malaria damage the brain?

In rare cases, malaria can affect the brain. This is known as cerebral malaria, which can cause your brain to swell, sometimes leading to permanent brain damage. It can also cause fits (seizures) or coma.

What are the three stages of malaria?

Life Stages Like all mosquitoes, anopheles mosquitoes go through four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The first three stages are aquatic and last 7-14 days, depending on the species and the ambient temperature. The biting female Anopheles mosquito may carry malaria.

What can lead to severe liver infection when one has malaria?

Background. Liver injury is a known feature of severe malaria, but is only incidentally investigated in uncomplicated disease. In such cases, drug-induced hepatotoxicity is often thought to be the primary cause of the observed liver injury, and this can be a major concern in antimalaria drug development.

What is the survival rate of malaria?

P. falciparum tends to be the species causing the most complications and has a high mortality if untreated. Cerebral malaria, a complication of P. falciparum malaria, has a 20% mortality rate even if treated.

Why do the symptoms of malaria not appear immediately?

Malaria pathogenesis is the process in which malaria parasites cause illness, abnormal function, or damage in human hosts. The symptoms do not appear immediately after the entry of sporozoites because hemozoin is not released. Only after the release of hemozoin the malarial symptoms are released.

What type of malaria affects the brain?

Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by coma and asexual forms of the parasite on peripheral blood smears.

What are the signs and symptoms of severe malaria?

The manifestations of severe malaria include the following:Cerebral malaria, with abnormal behavior, impairment of consciousness, seizures, coma, or other neurologic abnormalities.Severe anemia due to hemolysis (destruction of the red blood cells)Hemoglobinuria (hemoglobin in the urine) due to hemolysis.More items…

How long does it take to recover from severe malaria?

In general, it takes about two weeks of treatment to be cured of malaria. However, in some individuals, relapses are possible. The time period from initial parasite infection to the appearance of symptoms varies according to the particular species of Plasmodium that infects an individual.

What should I eat if I have malaria?

Eating soups, stews or drinking fruit juices or dal water, coconut water, etc. are important. Vitamin C and A rich foods such as papaya, beetroots, and other citrus foods etc. with vitamin B complex are important for a malaria patient.

Does malaria cause memory loss?

Results Deficits in attention, memory, visuo‐spatial skills, language and executive functions may occur after malaria infection. These deficits are not only caused by cerebral falciparum malaria, but also appear to occur in less severe infections.

What is the most severe form of malaria?

Severe malaria is usually caused by P. falciparum (often referred to as falciparum malaria). Symptoms of falciparum malaria arise 9–30 days after infection.

How is complicated malaria treated?

Treat adults and children with severe malaria (including infants, pregnant women in all trimesters and lactating women) with intravenous or intramuscular artesunate for at least 24 h. Once a patient has received at least 24 h of parenteral therapy and can tolerate oral therapy, complete treatment with 3 days of an ACT.

How is severe malaria diagnosed?

Specifically, these tests can detect severe anemia, hypoglycemia, renal failure, hyperbilirubinemia, and acid-base disturbances. Malaria parasites can be identified by examining under the microscope a drop of the patient’s blood, spread out as a “blood smear” on a microscope slide.

What are the 5 types of malaria?

Five species of Plasmodium (single-celled parasites) can infect humans and cause illness:Plasmodium falciparum (or P. falciparum)Plasmodium malariae (or P. malariae)Plasmodium vivax (or P. vivax)Plasmodium ovale (or P. ovale)Plasmodium knowlesi (or P. knowlesi)

What are the 10 complications of malaria?

Other complications of a severe case of malaria can include:breathing problems (such as fluid in your lungs)liver failure and jaundice (a yellow discolouration of the skin)shock (sudden drop in blood flow)spontaneous bleeding.abnormally low blood sugar.kidney failure.swelling and rupturing of the spleen.dehydration.

What are the symptoms of complicated malaria?

Major severe malaria symptoms observed were prostration, and severe anemia, in combination with other symptoms including persistent vomiting, hyperpyrexia, and hypoglycemia. However, none had signs of confusion, coma, hemoglobinuria or discoloration of urine and hypotension (Table 3).